Revised 2015

Cancer of the thyroid gland is rare but increasing in incidence. Most lumps (nodules) in the thyroid turn out to be benign (non- cancerous). The most common thyroid cancers are ‘differentiated’. The majority of differentiated thyroid cancers can be treated very successfully with surgery, radioactive iodine or a combination of both.

Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC)

  • Papillary
  • Follicular
  • Sub-types of papillary and follicular carcinomas include Hurthle cell, tall cell, insular, and columnar

Other thyroid cancers

  • Medullary, which can run in families
  • Anaplastic, which usually affects older people
  • Lymphoma of the thyroid, which also usually affects older people

Symptoms

  • Swelling or lump (nodule) in the thyroid or lower neck area
  • Hoarse voice
  • Difficulty in swallowing and awareness of pressure when swallowing
  • Difficulty in breathing especially when sleeping
  • Changes to a previously known nodule

If you discover a lump you should see your doctor

Diagnosis

  • Physical examination
  • Ultrasound scan
  • Fine needle biopsy (FNAC) to remove cells for examination

Treatment

  • Surgery - to remove part or all of the thyroid gland
  • Radioactive iodine (in some cases) - to ensure that all thyroid and thyroid cancer cells are destroyed
  • Levothyroxine - to replace missing thyroid hormone and suppress the rate of growth of any remaining thyroid cells

Note - after radioactive iodine women should avoid conceiving for six months and men should avoid fathering children for four months.

Follow-up and outlook

  • Regular long-term check-ups
  • Differentiated thyroid cancer has a high cure rate, and the vast majority of patients go on to live a full and normal life

It is well recognised that thyroid problems often run in families and if family members are unwell they should be encouraged to discuss with their own GP whether thyroid testing is warranted.

If you have questions or concerns about your thyroid disorder, you should talk to your doctor or specialist as they will be best placed to advise you. You may also contact the British Thyroid Foundation for further information and support, or if you have any comments about the information contained in this leaflet.

The British Thyroid Foundation

www.btf-thyroid.org
The British Thyroid Foundation is a registered charity: England and Wales No 1006391, Scotland SC046037

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Endorsed by:

The British Thyroid Association - medical professionals encouraging the highest standards in patient care and research
www.british-thyroid-association.org

The British Association of Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons - the representative body of British surgeons who have a specialist interest in surgery of the endocrine glands (thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal)
www.baets.org.uk

First issued: 2008
Revised: 2010, 2011, 2015
Our literature is reviewed every two years and revised if necessary.
© 2015 BRITISH THYROID FOUNDATION

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